Research

My research area includes electronics, biomedical image processing, orthothic and prosthetic, 3D image reconstruction and rehabilitation engineering. Below are SOME selected research abstract from published papers.

3D SURFACE RECONSTRUCTION FROM MULTIVIEWS FOR ORTHOTIC AND PROSTHETIC DESIGN

Existing methods that use a fringe projection technique for orthotic and prosthetic designs produce good results for the trunk and lower limbs; however, the devices used are expensive. This paper proposes the use of an inexpensive passive method involving 3D surface reconstruction from video images taken at multiple views. The design and evaluation methodology comprise of a number of techniques suitable for orthotic and prosthetic design. A method that fits a 3D reference model of an object (e.g., a limb) to the target (actual) 3D data to reconstruct the surface of the target is presented. The reference model is generated using a computer algorithm while the target is reconstructed using a shape-from-silhouette (SfS) technique in an approximately circular motion. The fitting process involves deforming the object vertices of the reference model to better match the actual object. The experimental results demonstrate the potential of using the proposed method in orthotic and prosthetic devices.


SMART ELECTRONIC CHESS BOARD USING REED SWITCH

This paper introduces the used of reed switch to detect the chess pieces that played on the electronic chessboard. During the tournament, audiences are not allowed to watch the game too close with all chess players to avoid the chess players lost their concentration. Hence, a system that can automatically project the chess players’ game is needed. This digital electronic chessboard can display the chess game on the computer screen with integration to other components such as microcontroller, chess clock and software application. The result shows that the reed switch could be one of the solutions to reduce the expensive sensor cost of existing digital electronic chess set.


DEVELOPMENT AND MEASUREMENT PROPERTIES OF PROSTHETICS USERS' SURVEY

The need to measure and evaluate prosthetics practice has received growing recognition in the past several years. Reliable and valid self-report instruments are needed that can help facilities evaluate patient outcomes. Evidence of construct validity is provided by hierarchies of item difficulty that are consistent with clinical experience. A survey with 16 completed survey returned from hospital and rehabilitation centre. The instruments demonstrate adequate internal consistency of mean 4.0 for satisfaction with services, mean 3.81 for satisfaction with devices and 16.67% for defects or drawbacks of devices. Documenting mechanical stability of the prosthesis is inadequate when reporting follow-up studies and a questionnaires assessing patient satisfaction should be added to provide a better picture of the outcome and results.



RELATIONSHIP STUDY OF HEART RATE AND SYSTOLIC BLOOD PRESSURE FOR HEALTHY PEOPLES

Manual blood pressure measurement is not practical if it is taken frequently. Therefore, in this paper, an automatic measurement system that can measure systolic blood pressure (SBP) incessantly based on its relationship with a heart rate is introduced. The system examines the heart rate based on the electrocardiography (ECG) and its relationship with SBP from the healthy subjects. The data analysis involved resting period, exercise period and recovery period of the subject (human). The results show that the system is capable of determine an incessantly blood pressure monitoring technique based on heart rate using ECG. 


LED INDICATOR FOR HEART RATE MONITORING SYSTEM IN SPORT APPLICATION

This paper presents a current invention for monitoring the athletes’ heart rate during training or exercise session. A bracelet with different color code of Light Emitting Diode (LED) is designed as a wrist heart rate monitor. This color-coding makes the heart rate easier to monitor and enabling the user to know their heart rate range at a certain moment. Our works investigate the used of Zigbee and ANT+ as a transmission medium from transmitter (chest strap) to receiver (bracelet). Different colors signify different ranges of heart rate. Preliminary result demonstrated that it is very helpful for athletes and coaches to monitor the fitness level of athletes and regulate their exercise training regime in a more effective and safer manner.


ABNORMAL TISSUE DETECTION OF BREAST ULTRASOUND IMAGE USING COMBINATION OF MORPHOLOGICAL TECHNIQUE

Breast cancer is the most common killer in women worldwide, which is originating from breast tissue. Early detection of breast cancer plays an important role in its therapy. Existing breast cancer detection method like ultrasound imaging can not be used at all stages, also quality of obtained images affected by speckle noise. Thus, it is essential to introduce new method to overcome these problems.This paper proposes an approach of detecting abnormal tissue in ultrasound breast image. The objective is to detect the abnormal tissue such as cyst or tumor inside breast tissues using image segmentation and combination of morphological technique. Image was processed using threshold segmentation method followed by dilation and erosion. The region of abnormalities tissue were found and has been differentiating from other tissue through several step of method applied. Besides, the same method was applied to the other different type of breast abnormalities tissue and the necessary result was obtained. The finding results show that this method can be used for early detection of breast cancer since it can detect several types of abnormalities in breast tissues.


SEMI-AUTOMATIC THYROID AREA MEASUREMENT ON ULTRASOUND IMAGE

This paper presents the simple guide to determine the thyroid lobes in thyroid ultrasound image using MATLAB. The thyroid measurement and recognition system is very useful in medical field such as early thyroid cancer diagnostic. The thyroid ultrasound image is enhanced by contrast enhancement histogram equalization to suppress speckle. The enhancement image is undergo local region-based active contour to segment the thyroid region. The thyroid region is segmented into two parts that are right and left with the active contour method separately. This is due to the thyroid that divided into two lobes that is right lobe and left lobe. The proposed method can be used to enhance the image and segmentation the thyroid lobe. It shows that from five samples, different people have different size of thyroid especially in measurement of width, depth and area.


ANALYSIS OF FINGERPRINT PERFORMANCE AMONG LEFT-HANDED AND RIGHT-HANDED PEOPLE

Fingerprint is one of the main features in identifying a person and the recognition of fingerprint is much easier to compute and analyze compared to another recognition such as iris recognition and voice recognition. This paper investigates the fingerprint performance between the left-handed and right-handed people by determining which one of these two groups has the easier computation using MATLAB. The minutiae matching are used to determine the feature of fingerprint image. Minutiae are the main feature of fingerprint identification. By using MATLAB as a tool for calculating the minutiae compared to the manual calculation, the error is reduced. As a result, it can be concluded that the minutiae matching is the best way in identify and analyze the fingerprint performance and pre-processing image is needed to produce clear images as well as the ridges and furrow could be differentiated easily.



IMAGE PROCESSING TOOLS PACKAGE FOR MEDICAL IMAGING USING MATLAB


This paper is about a survey of image processing algorithms that have been developed for detection of masses and segmentation techniques. 35 students from university campus participated in the Development of Biomedical Image Processing Software Package for New Learners Survey to investigate the use of software package in processing and editing image. Composed of 19 questions, the survey built a comprehensive picture of the software package, programming language, workflow of the tool and captured the attitudes of the respondents. The result of this study shows that MATLAB is among the famous software package; more than 60% of the respondents prefer to use MATLAB for their image processing work. The Microsoft Photo Editor is the second popular software for images editing process. More than 30% of respondents are very likely to use a ready-to-use package for processing image rather than given source code. The result is expected to be beneficial and able to assist users on effective image processing and analysis in a newly develop software package. A preliminary image processing tool prototype was developed as shown in this paper.


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